The following list commemorates 10 of the greatest scientists we’ve ever seen who changed the world. Aristotle (384-322 BC) Student of Plato and a tutor to Alexander the Great, Aristotle was. Historically, most of the scientists involved with SETI have been astrono - mers and physicists. As SETI has grown as a science, scholars from the social sciences and humanities have become involved in the search, often focusing on how humans may react to the detection of extraterrestrial life.
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PDF Doc. (633 KB) Guide to Tipitaka — Compiled by U KO Lay.
The Guide to the Tipitaka is an outline of the Pali Buddhist Canonical Scriptures of Theravada Buddhism from Burma. This is a unique work, as it is probably the only material that deals in outline with the whole of the Pali Buddhist Tipitaka. The Tipitaka includes all the teachings of the Buddha, grouped into three divisions: the Soutane Patch, or general discourses; the Vane Patch, or moral code for monks and nuns; and the Abhidhamma Pitaka, or philosophical teachings. An excellent reference work which gives an overview of the Pali Buddhist texts. • It is recommended that you download the print version below as it is of higher quality.
Print Version (1,314KB, zipped file) This print version is suitable for people who can print the pages duplex and they will have 2 A5 size pages on every Landscape oriented A4 page. This file is of higher quality with bookmarks and a hyper linked series of 'contents' pages.
PDF Doc. (1,815 KB) Daily Readings from Buddha's Words of Wisdom — by Ven. S. Dhammika.
|For over two millennium the discourses of the Buddha have nourished the spiritual lives of countless millions of people in India, Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand. This book contains extracts from some of these discourses selected from the Pali Tipitaka and also from some post-canonical writings. Rendered into readable English, presented so that one extract can be read and reflected upon each day of the year and provided with a Readers Guide, this book is an indispensable companion for anyone trying to apply the Buddha's gentle message to their daily life.|
PDF Doc. (752 KB) Essentials of Buddhism — Ven. Pategama Gnanarama Ph.D.
|This book can be used as a textbook on basic Buddhism. It is based on the Theravada Buddhism syllabus of the Postgraduate Diploma Examination in Buddhist Studies course of the Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka. Since the work is meant for students, every chapter appears as a unit by itself and is confined to a few pages. Ven. Pategama Ganarama is the Principal of the Buddhist and Pali College of Singapore.|
PDF Doc. (2,274 KB) Aspects of Early Buddhist Thought — Ven. Pategama Gnanarama Ph.D.
“All the chapters are enlightening and sociologically important. Particularly the discussion on Dhamma, medicine and sociology deserves special praise, for the novel and refreshing interpretation offered.” Prof. Chandima Wijebandara. “Early Buddhist redefinition of woman’s social role is well documented and discussed, shedding light on the subject, so it can be viewed in a broader perspective.” Senarat Wijavasundara
PDF Doc. (499 KB) Sutta-Nipata — Translated by Lesley Fowler & Tamara Ditrich with Primoz Pecenko.
|The Sutta-nipata is one of the earliest texts of the Pali cannon, coming from the same period as the Dhammapada, before the monastic tradition was strong. It was created by people as they practised and refers to “the wise one”, rather than to monks or nuns. In the present translation, “the wise one” is referred to as female and as male on a roughly equal number of occasions. This translation aims to combine textual precision and a colloquial style. Natural Australian speech rhythms and some idiomatic expressions (skite, for example, is an Australian colloquial word for brag or boast) were chosen to reflect both the popular origins of the text and the audience to whom this translation is directed.|
PDF Doc. (241 KB) The Dhammapada, Buddha's Path of Wisdom — Ven. Acharya Buddharakkita.
Translated from the Pali by Acharya Buddharakkhita and with an introduction by Bhikkhu Bodhi. The Dhammapada is the best known and most widely esteemed text in the Pali Tipitaka, the sacred scriptures of Theravada Buddhism. The work is included in the Khuddaka Nikaya ('Minor Collection') of the Sutta Pitaka, but its popularity has raised it far above the single niche it occupies in the scriptures to the ranks of a world religious classic. Composed in the ancient Pali language, this slim anthology of verses constitutes a perfect compendium of the Buddha's teaching, comprising between its covers all the essential principles elaborated at length in the forty-odd volumes of the Pali Canon.
PDF Doc. (592 KB) The Dhammapada, a Translation — Ven. Thanissaro, Bhikkhu.
|The Dhammapada, an anthology of verses attributed to the Buddha, has long been recognized as one of the masterpieces of early Buddhist literature. Only more recently have scholars realized that it is also one of the early masterpieces of the Indian tradition of Kavya, or belles lettres. This translation is an attempt to render the verses into English in a way that does justice to both of the traditions to which the text belongs. Although it is tempting to view these traditions as distinct, dealing with form (Kavya) and content (Buddhism), the ideals of Kavya aimed at combining form and content into a seamless whole.|
PDF Doc. (3,839 KB) Treasury of Truth - Dhammapada (Text Version) — Ven. W. Sarada Maha Thero.
This work lends itself readily to an in-depth study of this religious classic of mankind, to the great delight of both the scholar and the student. This PDF file is the text version only of the Illustrated Dhammapada by Ven. Sarada Maha Thero. The Pali text has explanatory translation of the verses with commentary in English.
Treasury of Truth - Illustrated Dhammapada(21, 511 KB) — Ven. W. Sarada Maha Thero.
PDF Doc. (2,026 KB) Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta — Ven. Mahasi Sayadaw.
The First Discourse of the Buddha, namely the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, commonly known as the Great Discourse on the Wheel of Dhamma. This is a series of discourses on the Dhammacakka Sutta by the late Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw, a Questioner at the Sixth Buddhist Council in Myanmar, (Burma) 1954. Translated by U Ko Lay.
PDF Doc. (504 KB) Transcendental Dependent Arising — Bhikkhu Bodhi.
An Exposition of the Upanisa Sutta. Dependent Arising (paticcasamuppada) is the central principle of the Buddha's teaching, constituting both the objective content of its liberating insight and the germinative source for its vast network of doctrines and disciplines. So crucial is this principle to the body of the Buddha’s doctrine that an insight into dependent arising is held to be sufficient to yield an understanding of the entire teaching. In the words of the Buddha: 'He who sees dependent arising sees the Dhamma; he who sees the Dhamma sees dependent arising.'
PDF Doc. (2,620 KB) Sigalovada Sutta - Illustrated — Compiled by Ven. K. Dhammasiri.
The Sigalovada in Pictures. A Pictorial presentation of the Buddha's advice to the layman, Sigala on the duties of the householder. Compiled by Venerable K. Dhammasiri. Artwork by K. W. Janaranjana.
PDF Doc. (1,128 KB) Maha Satipatthana Sutta — Translated by U Jotika & U Dhamminda.
Practise in accordance with this Mahasatipatthana Sutta so that you can see why it is acknowledged as the most important Sutta that the Buddha taught. Try to practise all the different sections from time to time as they are all useful, but in the beginning start with something simple such as being mindful while walking, or the mindfulness of in and out breathing. Then as you practise these you will be able to practise the other sections contained within this Sutta and you will find that all the four satipatthanas can be practised concurrently. A Sutta should be read again and again as you will tend to forget its message. The message here in this Sutta is that you should be mindful of whatever is occurring in the body and mind, whether it be good or bad, and thus you will become aware that all conditioned phenomena are impermanent, unsatisfactory and not self.
PDF Doc. (1,027 KB) The Mission Accomplished — Ven. Pategama Gnanarama Ph.D.
A historical analysis of the Mahaparinibbana Sutta of the Digha Nikaya of the Pali Canon. 'The Mission Accomplished is undoubtedly an eye opening contribution to Buddhist analytical Pali studies. In this analytical and critical work Ven. Dr. Pategama Gnanarama enlightens us in many areas of subjects hitherto unexplored by scholars. His views on the beginnings of the Bhikkhuni Order are interesting and refreshing. They might even be provocative to traditional readers, yet be challenging to the feminists to adopt a most positive attitude to the problem'. Prof. Chandima Wijebandara, University of Sri Jayawardhanapura, Sri Lanka.
PDF Doc. (896 KB) The Debate of King Milinda — Bhikkhu Pesala.
The Milanda Panna is a famous work of Buddhist literature, probably compiled in the 1st century B.C. It presents Buddhist doctrine in a very attractive and memorable form as a dialogue between a Bactrian Greek king, Milinda, who plays the 'Devil's Advocate' and a Buddhist sage, Nagasena. The topics covered include most of the questions commonly asked by Westerners. This abridgment provides a concise presentation of this masterpiece of Buddhist literature. The introduction outlines the historical background against which the dialogues took place, indicating the meeting of two great cultures that of ancient Greece and the Buddhism of the Indus valley, which was the legacy of the great Emperor Asoka.
PDF Doc. (3,416 KB) The Buddha and His Teachings — Ven. Narada Maha Thera.
Many valuable books have been written by Eastern and Western scholars, Buddhists and non-Buddhists alike, to present the life and teachings of the Buddha to those who are interested in Buddhism. This treatise is another humble attempt made by a member of the Order of the Sangha, based on the Pali Texts, commentaries, and traditions prevailing in Buddhist countries, especially in Sri Lanka. The first part of the book deals with the Life of the Buddha, the second with the Dhamma, the Pali term for His Doctrine.
PDF Doc. (1,481 KB) A Manual of Abhidhamma — Ven. Narada Maha Thera.
Abhidhamma is the Higher Teaching of the Buddha. It expounds the quintessence of His profound doctrine. The Dhamma, embodied in the Sutta Piñaka, is the conventional teaching, and the Abhidhamma is the ultimate teaching. In the Abhidhamma both mind and matter, which constitute this complex machinery of man, are microscopically analysed. Chief events connected with the process of birth and death are explained in detail. Intricate points of the Dhamma are clarified. The Path of Emancipation is set forth in clear terms.
PDF Doc. (3,254 KB) Buddha Abhidhamma - Ultimate Science — Dr Mehn Tin Mon.
The Buddha's ultimate teaching, known as the Abhidhamma, describes in detail the natures of the ultimate realities that really exist in nature but are unknown to scientists. His method of verification is superior to scientific methods which depend on instruments. He used his divine-eye to penetrate the coverings that hide the true nature of things. He also taught others how to develop concentration and how to observe with their mind-eyes the true nature of all things and finally the four Noble Truths which can enlighten one to achieve one's liberation from all miseries for ever!
PDF Doc. (1,673 KB) Practising Dhamma with a View to Nibbana — Radhika Abeysekera.
Radhika Abeysekera began teaching and writing books on the Dhamma to help reintroduce Buddhism to immigrants in non-Buddhist countries. The books are designed in such a manner that a parent or educator can use them to teach Buddhism to a child. Mrs. Abeysekera feels strongly that parents should first study and practise the Dhamma to the best of their ability to obtain maximum benefits, because what you do not possess you cannot give to your child. The books were also designed to foster understanding of the Dhamma among non-Buddhists, so that there can be peace and harmony through understanding and respect for the philosophies and faiths of others.
PDF Doc. (3,129 KB) The Teachings ofAjahn Chah — Ven. Ajahn Chah.
The following Dhamma books of Ajahn Chah have been included in this collection of Ajahn Chah's Dhamma talks: Bodhinyana (1982); A Taste of Freedom (fifth impression.2002); Living Dhamma (1992); Food for the Heart (1992); The Path to Peace (1996); Clarity of Insight (2000); Unshakeable Peace (2003); Everything is Teaching Us (2004). Also some as yet unpublished talks have been included in the last section called `More Dhamma Talks'. We hope our efforts in compiling this collection of Dhamma talks of Ajahn Chah will be of benefit. (Wat Pah Nanachat)
PDF Doc. (1,249 KB) A Taste of Freedom — Ven. Ajahn Chah.
Venerable Ajahn Chah always gave his talks in simple, everyday language. His objective was to clarify the
PDF Doc. (1,479 KB) Bhavana Vandana - Book of Devotion — Compiled by Ven. Gunaratana.
The purpose of this book is manifold. One is to teach the users of this Vandana book how to pronounce Pali words correctly. By the daily repetition of these Pali verses and Suttas people can learn the Pali pronunciation without much effort. Secondly we intend to teach people the Pali language without much toil. Therefore we made one half of our chanting in English, so people learn the meaning of what they chant in Pali and later on they can compare the English with the Pali. Thirdly, we intend to teach people Dhamma through devotional service. In order to fulfill all these purposes we decided to include certain Suttas which are not normally used in Viharas for vandana service.
PDF Doc. (1,690 KB) Ordination Procedure — Pali / English.
Ordination Procedure, was composed by Somdet Phra Sangharàja Pussadeva of Wat Ràjapratisñhasthita Mahàsãmàràma. His Eminence reformed some of the text and procedure for Pabbajjà and Upasampadà from the original text. The method of Pabbajjà (Going-forth) and Upasampadà (Acceptance) in the Southern School (that is, Theravàda) uses the original Magadha (Pàli) language.
PDF Doc. (435 KB) Chanting Book — Pali / English.
This is the standard Morning and Evening Chanting Book, with Protective Discourses, commonly chanted in many Theravadin temples and monasteries. The text is in both Pali and English.
PDF Doc. (402 KB) A Pali Word A Day — Mahindarama Sunday Pali School.
|A selection of Pali words for daily reflection. This booklet aims to assist new Buddhist students who are unfamiliar with some of the Pali words often used in the study of Buddhism. As the title suggests, it encourages the learning and use of Pali words by learning one word a day. This booklet can serve both as a dictionary and a glossary of terms for your reference.|
PDF Doc. (822 KB) Elementary Pali Course — Ven. Narada, Thera. [Pali Studies]
|This Elementary Pali Course by the late Venerable Narada Thera, the renowned Buddhist scholar of the Vjirarama Vihara, Colombo, Sri Lanka, is the standard work for the study of the elementary level of Pali. Pali was the language spoken by the Buddha, and employed by him to expound his teachings. It is also the scriptural language used by the Theravada school of Buddhism.|
PDF Doc. (479 KB) A Grammar of the Pali Language — Chas Durioselle. [Pali Studies]
|Most introductory Pali grammar books consist of lessons that teach the elements of the language in stages, but because of that they are also very difficult to use as a reference when you need to look up a noun's declension, or a verb's conjugation. Because of its practical and comprehensive coverage of the elements of the Pali language in complete chapters, this book is a very useful reference. It was not written for linguistics experts, but for students with little experience studying Pali grammar.|
PDF Doc. (930 KB) With Robes & Bowl - Glimpses of the Thudong Bhikkhu Life — Bhikkhu Kantipalo.
|As much as can easily be written of the thudong bhikkhu’s life is contained in these sketches. Just as the flavor of soup is not to be told even in one thousand pages, so the real flavor of this Ancient Way cannot be conveyed by words. Soup is to be tasted: the thudong life is to be lived. If it sounds hard, one must remember that its rewards are great, and in the field of Dhamma-endeavor, nothing is gained without effort. The world wants everything quick-and-easy but the fruits of the holy life are thus only for those who have already put forth their energy, already striven hard for the goal.|
PDF Doc. (1,000 KB) The Bhikkhus' Rules - Guide for Laypeople — Bhikkhu Ariyesako.
|The Theravadin Buddhist Monk's Rules by compiled and explained by Bhikkhu Ariyesako. This compilation is for anyone interested about bhikkhus and about how to relate to them. Some may think that this lineage follows an overly traditionalist approach but then, it does happen to be the oldest living tradition. A slight caution therefore to anyone completely new to the ways of monasticism, which may appear quite radical for the modern day and age. The best introduction, perhaps essential for a true understanding, is meeting with a practising bhikkhu who should manifest and reflect the peaceful and joyous qualities of the bhikkhu's way of life.|
PDF Doc. (1,354 KB) The Bhikkhuni Patimokkha of the Six Schools — Chatsumarn Kabilsingh Ph.D.
Dr. Chatsumarn Kabilsingh has translated the monastic rules of Buddhist nuns or the Patimokkha of the Six Schools, which will help us to learn and compare Theravada, Mahasanghika, Mahisasaka, Sarvastivada, Dhamagupta and Mula-Sarvastivada. The study of the patimokkha also provides insight into the historical context from which the rules took place. This translation will also provide valuable material for concerned Buddhist scholars.
The book gives clinicians clear principles and practical guidance on how to approach this aspect of treatment. Going off script pdf free download. In this book, the author focuses on why we do it, how to make it effective, and ways to avoid common pitfalls.
PDF Doc. (1,773 KB) Inspiration from Enlightened Nuns — Susan Elbaum Jootla.
In this booklet we will be exploring poems composed by the arahant bhikkhunis or enlightened Buddhist nuns of old, looking at these poems as springs of inspiration for contemporary Buddhists. From the poems of the enlightened nuns of the Buddha’s time contemporary followers of the Noble Eightfold Path can receive a great deal of instruction, help and encouragement. These verses can assist us in developing morality, concentration and wisdom, the three sections of the path. With their aid we will be able to work more effectively towards eliminating our mental defilements and towards finding lasting peace and happiness.
PDF Doc. (2,799 KB) Buddhist Women at the Time of the Buddha — Hellmuth Hecker.
|The following stories of Buddhist women at the time of the Buddha, written by Hellmuth Hecker, have been translated from the German. While every effort has been made by the translator to conform to the original writing, some changes had to be made for the sake of clarity. The stories of Bhadda Kundalakesa and Patacara have been enlarged and filled in. It is hoped that this booklet will serve as an inspiration to all those who are endeavoring to tread in the Buddha’s footsteps - Sister Khema (translator).|
PDF Doc. (342 KB) The Buddha and His Disciples — Ven. S. Dhammika.
|Taking a different perspective from the usual biographies of the Buddha, the author retells the great man's story using the society of the time as the backdrop and the Buddha's interactions with his contemporaries as the main theme. We discover what the Buddha was like as a person, how he taught and how he changed the lives of all who were blessed enough to come into contact with him.|
PDF Doc. (886 KB) No Inner Core: An Introduction to the Doctrine of Anatta — Sayadaw U Silananda.
|Anattà is a Pàli word consisting of a negative prefix, ‘an’ meaning not, plus atta, soul, and is most literally translated as no-soul. The word atta, however, has a wide range of meanings, and some of those meanings cross over into the fields of psychology, philosophy, and everyday terminology, as, for example, when atta can mean self, being, ego, and personality. Therefore, we will examine and elucidate the wide range of meanings which atta can signify in order to determine exactly what the Buddha denied when He proclaimed that He teaches anattà, that is, when He denied the existence of atta. We will examine both Buddhist and non-Buddhist definitions of the term soul, and we will also examine modern definitions of terms such as ego and self.|
PDF Doc. (1,169 KB) Volition: An Introduction of the Law of Kamma — Sayadaw U Silanada.
|What is kamma? The Buddha said: “Oh monks, it is volition that I call kamma.” The popular meaning of kamma is action or doing, but as a technical term, kamma means volition or will. When you do something, there is volition behind it, and that volition, that mental effort, is called kamma. The Buddha explained that, having willed, one then acts through body, speech, and mind. Whatever you do, there is some kind of kamma, mental effort, will, and volition. Volition is one of the fifty-two mental states which arise together with consciousness.|
PDF Doc. (1,739 KB) The 31 Planes of Existence — Ven. Suvanno Mahathera.
|The suttas describe the 31distinct 'planes' or 'realms' of existence into which beings can be reborn during their long wanderings through samsara. These range from the extraordinarily dark, grim, and painful hell realms all the way up to the most sublime, refined and exquisitely blissful heavenly realms. Existence in every realm is impermanent; in the cosmology taught by the Buddha there is no eternal heaven or hell. Beings are born into a particular realm according to both their past kamma and their kamma at the moment of death.|
PDF Doc. (1,662 KB) The Roots of Good and Evil — Ven. Nyanaponika Thera.
|Greed, hatred, and delusion - these are the three bad roots in us. Conversely the good ones are non-greed (i.e generosity), non-hatred (love), and non-delusion (wisdom). All our troubles and suffering stem essentially from the bad roots while our joy and happiness comes from the good ones. It is important to know and understand these roots if we are going to make an end of suffering and attain true peace and happiness. This book explains in a penetrative way the nature of these six roots. It contains discourses of the Buddha on the subject together with traditional commentarial explanations.|
PDF Doc. (1,050 KB)Good, Evil & Beyond: Kamma in the Buddha's Teachings — Bhikkhu P.A. Payutto.
|For the modern Westerner, the teaching of kamma offers a path of practice based not on fear of a higher authority, nor dogma, but rather founded on a clear understanding of the natural law of cause and effect as it relates to human behaviour. It is a teaching to be not so much believed as understood and seen in operation.|
PDF Doc. (2,797 KB) Dying to Live: The Role of Kamma in Dying & Rebirth — Aggacitta Bhikkhu.
There are different views and beliefs about what happens after death. Tibetan (Vajrayàna) and Chinese (Mahàyàna) Buddhists believe that after death, the spirit of the dead person passes through an intermediate period (bardo in Tibetan, zhong yin in Mandarin) — which may last for as long as forty-nine days — during which it undergoes a series of unearthly, extraordinary experiences, including a “small death” at the end of each week, before it is finally reborn into another realm of existence. In contrast, orthodox Theravada Buddhism, which is the earliest extant record of Gotama Buddha’s teaching, asserts that rebirth takes place immediately after death.
PDF Doc. (2,250 KB) Kathina: Then and Now — Aggacitta Bhikkhu.
|The kathina ceremony is now an internationally established celebration where the Sangha and the laity meet to participate in mutually rewarding, meritorious activities. Throughout the centuries, the way of carrying out the ceremony has changed with local interpretations, practices and customs. How much has deviated from the original scriptural tradition — how much is in accordance with the scriptures and how much is mere invention? In this booklet, Venerable Aggacitta Bhikkhu combines his scriptural knowledge and practical experience to scrutinise the kathina ceremony through two articles: The Scriptural Tradition of Kathina; Kathina Benefits — Illusion, Delusion and Resolution.|
PDF Doc. (1,986 KB) Acariya Mun Bhuridatta - A Spiritual Biography — Tr. Bhikkhu Dick Silaratano.
|A Spiritual Biography by Acariya Maha Boowa Nanasampanno. Translated from the Thai by Bhikkhu Dick Sãlaratano. Acariya Mun Bhýridatta Thera was a vipassanã meditation master of the highest caliber of this present age. He taught the profound nature of Dhamma with such authority and persuasion that he left no doubts among his students about the exalted level of his spiritual attainment. His devoted followers consist of numerous monks and laity from virtually every region of Thailand. His story is truly a magnificent one throughout: from his early years in lay life through his long endeavor as a Buddhist monk to the day he finally passed away. [This eBook is also available with photographs ]|
PDF Doc. (4,164 KB) Acariya Mun Bhuridatta - Screen Version — Tr. Bhikkhu Dick Silaratano.
|A high quality screen version of the above. This edition is made with InDesign 2. [Please note: Large file size]|
PDF Doc. (3,992 KB) Clearing the Path — Nanavira Thera. [Screen Viewing]
NOTE: There are 3 versions of Clearing the Path. This version is made for screen viewing and is very similar to the 'book' version. However it is not designed to be printed because the pages are not a standard size (the pages have been cropped for easier screen viewing).
PDF Doc. (3,681 KB) Clearing the Path — Nanavira Thera. [Print Version 01]
NOTE: Primarily the PDF 'CtPbookV1.pdf' is made to be printed as a book. Other versions of this PDF are modified to be better viewed on screen - whilst another is already 'pre-printed' in PDF format as a '2-up' meaning that there are 2 pages per A4 Landscape oriented page to make for easier printout (on A4 paper) for personal use.
PDF Doc. (2,602 KB) Clearing the Path — Nanavira Thera. [Print Version 02]
NOTE: The primary book version was made for printing as a book so it was not optimised for onscreen viewing or personal printout. This version '2upbookctpv1.PDF' has been reprinted (Distilled) via Acrobat so that there are now 2 pages per A4 page in Landscape orientation (rather than usual Portrait orientation) so as to make personal printouts for reading much easier. The same effect could be obtained by using the original 'CtPbookv1.pdf' and printing that via your desktop printer driver so as to have 2 pages per page (if possible).
PDF Doc. (726 KB) Vandana: Pali Devotional Chanting — by Ven. E. Indaratana.
Pali Devotional Chanting and Hymns - It is beneficial for every Buddhist to recite daily at least a few verses from the Vandana, recalling to mind the sublime qualities of the Buddha, Dhamma and the Sangha. Contemplation on these great qualities will make our minds calm, peaceful and serene.
PDF Doc. (1,542 KB) Theravadin Buddhist Chinese Funeral — Ven. Suvanno.
|Generally, a Chinese funeral is a mixture of Taoist, Confucian and Buddhist rites. How then should a Theravadin Buddhist funeral be conducted? Venerable Suvanno, a respected and senior Theravadin Buddhist monk of Chinese descent explains how a Theravadin Buddhist Chinese funeral may be conducted.|
PDF Doc. (2,650 KB) Forest Path — Wat Pah Nanachat community.
|This book provides a present-moment snapshot of the International community of Wat Pah Nanachat, Thailand. The articles come from a broad cross-section of the community from the abbot to the most newly ordained novice. It opens with excerpts from two chapters of 'Water Still, Water Flowing', Ajan Jayasaro's forthcoming biography of Ajan Cha's life and teachings. To give a visual impression of monastic life, the book also contains a number of photographs and a selection of illustrations by Ajan Abhinano.|
PDF Doc. (3,602 KB) Introduction to Basic Pathana — Ashin Janakabhivamsa. (Burmese Script)
|This is a commentary on the seventh Book of the Abhidhamma: Patthana - 'The Book of Causal Relations'. Which is the most important and voluminous book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka, by the late renowned Burmese scholar monk, Ashin Janakabhivamsa. ( Please Note: the text is in Burmese script )|
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Right from the beginning of human settlement, a lot of people came up with ideas, philosophies, beliefs, experiments, research, redesigning of thoughts, and surveys to bring myths to reality. People contributed for science to study different aspects of nature to prosper mankind. These genius minds put a keen interest on every phenomenon right from when they were kids. The zeal, passion, dedication, hard work and the effort they put in their work helped them discover something new about the world we live in.
The world today dwells in the abode of scientific advancement in different sectors of medical science, engineering and technology because of these scientists. The present picture of the world that we see would not have transformed without the contribution of these great personalities. Great philosophers and masterminds that existed in the ancient Greek era to the present day scientists, we’ve seen inexplicable abilities that helped us define our existence and human life.
Their names are engraved in the sands of time for their work in the welfare of mankind with different inventions that has made our modern lives easy. The following list commemorates 10 of the greatest scientists we’ve ever seen who changed the world.
10. Aristotle (384-322 BC)
Student of Plato and a tutor to Alexander the Great, Aristotle was a genius Greek philosopher and scientist of the ancient age. Born on 384 BC Aristotle was a biologist, a zoologist, ethicist, a political scientist and the master of rhetoric and logic. He also gave theories in physics and meta physics.
Aristotle gained knowledge in different fields with his expansive mind and prodigious writings. However, only a fraction of his writings are preserved at present. Aristotle made collections to the plant and animal specimens and classified them according to their characteristics which made an standard for future work. He further gave theories on the philosophy of science.
Aristotle also elaborated and estimated the size of earth which Plato assumed to be globe. Aristotle explained the chain of life through his study in flora and fauna where it turned from simple to more complex.
9. Archimedes (287-212 BC)
Regarded as the greatest mathematician ever, Archimedes developed profound and influential knowledge on mathematical physics and engineering that are widely used in machines as well as in constructions. Born on 287 BC, Archimedes is one of the finest scientist who broke through in both theories and practice.
He introduced infinitesimals and laid the foundation for calculus. He gave descriptions on the first finite geometric progression, computed areas and volumes of sphere and parabolic segments.
He also discovered the laws of lever, density, fluid equilibrium, buoyancy in different fields statics and hydrostatics. He is regarded as the prophet to the formal science that was started in Ancient Greece.
“Give me a place to stand and I can move the whole world”, he said and we can still fill the impact of his generosity even today. All other scientists after him stand on his shoulders. Even though most of his work were burned in the museum of Alexandria, the remnants gave enough ideas for modern day science and technology.
8. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642 AD)
Born in Pisa, Italy in 1564, Galileo is called as the father of modern science because of his discoveries in astronomy and physics.
He was sent to study medicine by his father, but he chose his career in science and mathematics and made the first telescope to observe stars and planets.
He also discovered the law of pendulum as he watched a chandelier swing in the cathedral of Pisa. He also discovered that the surface of moon was not smooth but contained burrows and holes to what he called crater.
Galileo discovered 4 revolving moons around Jupiter which are named after him. He proved what Copernicus said about sun being the center of the solar system. Galileo became blind in his old days and died in the year 1642.
7. Michael Faraday (1791-1867 AD)
Born on 1791, British citizen Michael Faraday was a son of a blacksmith who had to leave school in the fourth grade.It started working as a bookbinder and taught himself to read and writer. He developed a fascination with science and particularly in electricity after he studied lot of serious academic works during his days.
Faraday is specially known for his discoveries of electromagnetic inductions and rotations, field theory, dia-magnetization and the magneto-optical effect. This humble genius invented the electric motor and Faraday’s ring.
Faraday’s inquisitive and curious nature made him take chemistry lectures and taught at the Royal Institution as a lecturer later when Humphry Davy retired.
Faraday also published research papers optical deceptions, condensation of gases and isolation of benzene from gas oils. He also wrote books on ”Experimental Researches in Electricity” and the “Chemical history of the Candle”. Faraday died on 1867.
6. Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931 AD)
“The Wizard of the Menlo Park” nicknamed Thomas Alva Edison was born in 1847. Excelled as both scientist and inventor, Edison patented a whopping total of 1,093 inventions in his life time. Most of the inventions that came from Edison are batteries, phonographs, cement, mining, telegraphs, lights and powers.
He also improved the telephone made by Graham Bell and invented the kinetoscope that was used for viewing moving films. He was seen working almost more than 20 hours a day.
Edison masterminded the digital voting system with his electro-graphic vote recorder for the legislative of the parliament. He also proposed ideas on preserving fruits by keeping it in vacuum. Edison pioneered the idea for storage batteries that was later used by Henry ford in his automobile.
“Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration” is one of the most famous quote by this genius. He died in the year 1931.
5. Marie Curie Sklodowska (1867-1934 AD)
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Marie Curie holds record for the first female to be awarded with a Nobel Prize. Inventor and scientist Curie was born as the youngest of five children in the year 1867 in Warsaw, Poland.
Marie Curie has always remained a source of inspiration and motivation for different female scientists because of her determination to work. She invented the first mobile X-ray machine which helped to check the injured soldiers in the battlefield.
Radium is another great invention from her. Curie experimented different elements to check their radio activity and found thorium. She also invented the pitch-blend which was the source of radiation in a mixture more powerful than uranium or thorium. She is also called ”the mother of atom bomb” with her invention of the radio active materials.
However, with all her brilliance, hard work and patience in careful experiments she performed, her own invention killed her because of radiation poisoning in 1934.
4. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895 AD)
Louis Pasteur made astounding contributions in the field of science, technology and medicine. This genius was born on 1822 and spent his life working in chemistry and microbiology.
Pasteur was the first ever scientist to study about fermentation in food elements that was caused by microbes. He also explained about biogenesis and proposed a theory named as the “Germ Theory”. He also created a process of toning and treating milk free from the damage causing microbes to what he called ”Pasteurization”.
Pasteur is also regarded as the first man on earth to ever discover cure for puerperal fever and make the vaccines for rabies and anthrax. He also explained the asymmetry in various crystals on a molecular basis.
His breadth of accomplishment and approaches in different fields of discoveries and inventions makes him a giant genius. He died in 1895.
3. Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727 AD)
Born on 1643 in Woolsthrope, England, Sir Issac Newton is best known for his law on gravitation. He was a poor student at school or at running the family estate. However, he loved making mechanical toys and models of windmills.
Newton explained the theory of gravity and gravitation by inventing calculus as no other principles could explain it. The new revolution in mathematics, calculus was derived from his binomial theorem to infinite series which accurately could measure the area inside the curve or rate of change of it.
He also explained the theory on tides which occurred due to the gravitation pull from the sun, moon and earth.
He also invented the reflecting telescope. Newtons laws can be found in different areas of mechanics, optics and chemistry. He was knighted with the title Sir by Queen Anne in 1705. Newton died at the age of 84, in 1727.
2. Albert Einstein (1879-1955 AD)
Born on 1879 in Ulm, Einstein is considered as one of the greatest revolutionary scientist the world has ever known.
The “Man of Century” has some spectacular works in physics which even makes him the father of modern physics for his contribution in developing the general theory of relativity. The world’s most famous equation E=mc2 on which the bomb is based comes from his theory.
One of the greatest scientist of the 20th century, Einstein’s Special theory of relativity revolutionized physics which even challenged the scientists at CERN. Albert Einstein’s genius mind for the scientific advancement cause immeasurable change to the world. Together with his intellect, he was also a celebrity with his flirtatious behavior that could impress any women.
This rare genius was awarded Nobel Prize in 1921 ”For his work on theortical physics, and for his discovery of the photoelectric effect”. Greatest physicist ever voted Einstein died on 1955 in Princeton.
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1. Nikola Tesla (1856-1943 AD)
This Serbian born scientist atop the list because of his immense knowledge in different fields of science and technology.
Without a question, this 1856 born guy was a cool geek. He could speak 8 languages, recite a whole book completely just with one reading, make a device just by seeing it once and not writing down anything. A funny fact about him was that he was a celibate his whole life.
Tesla had developed almost everything by himself and did not expose any of it which later was invented by other scientists in his time. Tesla had generated ac current before Edison knew about charges. Markoni who got Nobel prize for inventing radio used all the ideas of Tesla. X-rays by Roentgen, RADAR by Watson-watt were all devised by Nikola Tesla.
There was almost nothing that Tesla did not do. First hydro electricity plant in Niagara falls, experiments with cryogenic engineering, transistors, radio wave recorder from outer space were all built by Tesla. Remote control, neon lightening, modern electric motor, earthquake machine are finest inventions from Tesla. He was a true genius.
However, most of his ideas and inventions were either copied, stolen or taken by somebody else. Tesla made a way to charge a house with electric lightening for electricity purpose but did not share it thinking somebody else will take it.
This incredible mind created revolution with his inventions. He was a future-thinker and his minds would run on any wavelengths. However, he died tragically in a hotel room and was found dead only after two days of his death in 1943.
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Source: Viral TopList, Elist10.